Antigua and Barbuda are Caribbean islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico.
How the islands were formed
Antigua and Barbuda both are generally low-lying islands whose terrain has been influenced more by limestone formations than volcanic activity.
Antigua, the largest of the Leeward Islands, is about 14 miles long and 11 miles wide, encompassing 108 square miles. Its highest point is Boggy Peak (1319 ft.), the remnant of a volcanic crater. The limestone formations in the northeast are separated from the southwestern volcanic area by a central plain of clay formations.
Barbuda, a flat coral island with an area of only 68 square miles, lies approximately 30 miles due north. The nation also includes the tiny (0.6 square mile) uninhabited island of Redonda, now a nature preserve. The current population for the nation is approximately 68,000 and its capital is St. John's on Antigua.
The shorelines of both islands are greatly indented, with beaches, lagoons, and natural harbours. And, are rimmed by reefs and shoals.